Chapter 2: The World is Ready

Each chapter of the book, The Company Citizen, has footnotes. As most of these are web links they cannot be readily accessed from the book. So here they are. Those numbered ‘a’, ‘b’, etc., are updates: they refer to text between numbered footnotes and not necessarily to the number in their suffix. For example: 14a is a new note which relates to text between note 14 and note 15 but not necessarily to the subject in 14 itself. Go back to ‘The Company Citizen’ here.

1

http://www.purposeofcorporation.org/en#how-this-affects-companies

2

http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/urbanization/unlocking-the-potential-of-emerging-market-cities

3

http://10458-presscdn-0-33.pagely.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/gss-evaluating-progress-towards-the-sustainable-development-goals.pdf

4

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/01/ricardo-hausmann-why-governments-act-on-their-lies

5

https://www.wfp.org/hunger/stats

6

http://motherboard.vice.com/read/we-need-three-planets-to-keep-the-human-race-alive-nasa-scientist-says

7

http://innovation-forum.co.uk/analysis.php?s=whats-the-acceptable-use-of-tech-in-agriculture

8

http://www.dw.com/en/monsanto-shareholders-approve-merger-with-bayer/a-36754523

9

http://news.mit.edu/2016/mobile-money-kenyans-out-poverty-1208

10

http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/340591491579331322/pdf/114125-NWP-P156957-PUBLIC-add-series-9th-TEU-April-7-2017-reduced.pdf

11

http://www.fairtrade.org.uk

12

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/sainsburys-fairly-traded-tea-own-brand-fairtrade-foundation-farmers-producers-a7753561.html

13

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/china-scraps-construction-85-coal-power-plants-renewable-energy-national-energy-administration-paris-a7530571.html

14

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/jul/24/brazil.foodanddrink

15

https://www.bsr.org/reports/BSR_GlobeScan_State_of_Sustainable_Business_Survey_2016.pdf – see also 46

16

http://www.edie.net/news/6/CDP-Big-businesses-are-driving-huge-cuts-in-supply-chain-emissions/34374

17

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/10-ways-support-climate-champions-sarah-finnie-robinson.
See also https://www.americaspledgeonclimate.com

17a

 From Impact Alpha’s Daily Brief, 25 October 2017: ‘From 2010 to 2015, China’s per
capita CO2 emissions grew from 6.7 tons to 7.54 tons, making the country the world’s
biggest emitter of climate-warming greenhouse gases. In 2015, China was cajoled into
committing to peak CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest. It pledged to lower the carbon
intensity of its GDP by more than 60% below 2005 levels by 2030. There is evidence
that China’s CO2 emissions may have peaked more than a decade ahead of its Paris
Agreement commitment.
All that could make China a model for other countries when
setting their own climate-change agendas.’ (My emphasis)

18

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2016/11/04/oil-chiefs-under-fire-over-pathetic-new-climate-investment-fund/

19

http://www.edie.net/news/10/London-s-largest-solar-retrofit-generates-large-carbon-savings/?

20

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/feb/29/worlds-biggest-floating-solar-farm-power-up-outside-london (2017 – No longer the largest: China has built one bigger, though
Thames Water’s is still the largest inland floating array)

21

http://whatsyourimpact.org/greenhouse-gases/carbon-dioxide-emissions

22

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/oct/19/shipping-progressives-call-for-industry-carbon-emission-cuts?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

23

‘Sea Change Needed’, by Casey Aspin, ESG Magazine, Winter 2016

24

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/546346/domestic-road-freight-statistics-2015.pdf

25

http://www.forbes.com/sites/paulmartyn/2016/12/14/supply-chain-sustainability-the-new-green-lean-money-machine/#5eec98712f7e

25a

 In the second half of 2017 France, Britain and China all signed up to a long term
aim of phasing out of diesel vehicles by banning sales; China announced a long term
end to petrol-driven car sales, too. France to ban all diesel vehicle sales by 2040: http://amp.timeinc.net/time/4846761/france-to-ban-sales-of-gas-diesel-vehicles-by-2040/?source=dam (July 2017)

26

http://there100.org/companies and http://there100.org/news/14257837

26a

Apple launched a $1Bn Green Bond after US withdrawal from Paris Accord (June
2017): https://www.reuters.com/article/us-apple-climate-greenbond-idUSKBN1941ZE 

26b

Goldman Sachs invests in a renewable energy plant on a site Trump wanted as a
new coal mine, to provide its own green energy (June 2017):
https://www.wsj.com/articles/goldmans-green-push-comes-with-a-trading-twist-1497278652 

26c

However, most FTSE100 companies were not yet reporting on climate change risks
by September 2017: https://www.edie.net/news/9/Majority-of-FTSE-100-firms-not-reporting-on-climate-change-risks/?

27

https://www.carbonbrief.org/analysis-uk-cuts-carbon-record-coal-drop. Minnesota is
the green energy capital of America, pledging half its energy from renewable sources by
2030: http://mn.gov/governor/newsroom/?id=1055-281735

28

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/07/world-aquifers-water-wars/

28a

 At the UK launch of his new film, ‘An Inconvenient Sequel’, Al Gore claimed that 60 per
cent of farms in Syria had gone bust because of water stress – even before the war there
started (August 2017)

29

https://www.ft.com/content/8e42bdc8-0838-11e4-9afc-00144feab7de

30

http://www.coal-seam-gas.com/environment/water.htm#.WQiSplLMyRs

31

https://www.cdp.net/en/research/global-reports/global-water-report-2016

32

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/09/140917-california-groundwater-law-drought-central-valley-environment-science/

33

http://fortune.com/2015/11/04/nestle-shared-value-water-paul-grimwood/

34

https://www.theguardian.com/vital-signs/2015/apr/30/california-drought-bottled-water-nestle-arrowhead-starbucks

35

https://www.ft.com/content/7f435f04-8c05-11e2-b001-00144feabdc0 (£)

35a

 Britain’s place in the arms market (Sept 2016): http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/britain-is-now-the-second-biggest-arms-dealer-in-the-world-a7225351.html 

36

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/britain-is-now-the-second-biggest-arms-dealer-in-the-world-a7225351.html

37

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/business/2013/02/economic-impact-syrian-crisis.html

38

https://www.gov.uk/guidance/conflict-minerals

39

http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/10/conflict-minerals/gettleman-text

39a

 A November 2017 review of the most assiduous companies in the biggest ten users of
conflict minerals in the consumer electronics and retail jewellery industries found that
Apple were well ahead of Alphabet (Google) whilst HP, Microsoft and Intel also scored
over 50 per cent. Toshiba were lowest in that category, scoring just 8 – but that figure
was more than half of the jewellers managed to score, only Signet and Tiffany scraping
over 50 per cent.
https://business-humanrights.org/en/ranking-corporate-action-on-conflict-minerals-sourcing-in-dem-rep-of-congo-new-report-by-enough-project?

40

http://www.conflictfreesourcing.org

41

http://www.enoughproject.org/special-topics/progress-and-challenges-conflict-minerals-facts-dodd-frank-1502

42

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/feb/08/trump-administration-order-conflict-mineral-regulations

43

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/02/conflict-minerals-law-congo-poverty

44

http://www.economist.com/news/americas/21690100-big-miners-have-better-record-their-critics-claim-it-up-governments-balance

45

http://www.angloamerican.com/~/media/Files/A/Anglo-American-Plc/media/releases/2007pr/2007-08-09/2007-08-09.pdf

46

http://community.businessfightspoverty.org/profiles/blogs/philomena-blees-can-and-should-enlightened-global-businesses-solv

47

http://community.businessfightspoverty.org/profiles/blogs/harriet-lamb-building-peace-is-everybody-s-business

48

Migration Watch’, Heather Hachigan, ESG Magazine 6, Winter 2016, and other sources

49

http://www.nature.com/news/what-the-numbers-say-about-refugees-1.21548

50

http://sector4focus.co.uk/blog/greece-is-the-word-for-refugees/

51

https://unchronicle.un.org/article/migration-sustainable-development-and-role-business

52

http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2017/04/21/remittances-to-developing-countries-decline-for-second-consecutive-year?

53

https://business.un.org/documents/business_action_pledge_refugee_crisis_illustrative_examples.pdf

54

http://bteam.org/announcements/new-report-refugees-are-an-opportunity-for-humanity/

55

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2017/jan/27/why-ikea-flatpack-refugee-shelter-won-design-of-the-year

56

https://www.dezeen.com/2017/04/18/ikea-massive-social-sustainability-drive-production-centres-refugee-camps-jordan/?

57

http://www.redcross.org.uk/About-us/Media-centre/Press-releases/2015/October/Red-Cross-overwhelmed-by-UK-publics-generosity-towards-refugees

58

https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa21/5243/2016/en/

59

http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/concerted-effort-required-on-labour-rights-wilmar-on-amnesty/3366276.html

60

https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2016/apr/09/ioi-malaysian-palm-oil-company-unilever-mars-kellogg-rspo-deforestation

61

https://innovation-forum.co.uk//analysis.php?s=investors-push-palm-oil-to-act-on-deforestation

62

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3768050/Superdrug-Boots-order-firms-ban-toxic-beads-Retailers-offer-ultimatum-cosmetic-companies-remove-plastic-poison-products-removed-shelves.html

62a

 Plastic fibres are found in tap water globally (September 2017): https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/sep/06/plastic-fibres-found-tap-water-around-world-study-reveals

63

http://blog.euromonitor.com/2016/10/plastic-not-fantastic-industry-responds-to-us-microbeads-ban.html

64

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/tesco-bans-microbeads-from-all-products-a7437316.html

65

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/dec/20/ministers-explore-extending-microbead-ban-household-products

66

https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/the-new-plastics-economy-rethinking-the-future-of-plastics

67

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/unilever-plastic-sachets-recycle-stop-enter-ocean-creasolv-process-billions-cosmetics-food-products-a7728396.html

68

https://www.edie.net/news/5/Ellen-MacArthur–Businesses-must-collaborate-to-make-circular-economy-mainstream/?

69

https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/lush-removes-mica-child-labour

70

http://community.businessfightspoverty.org/profiles/blogs/pedro-moura-costa-big-data-bold-moves-combatting-illegal-logging-

71

http://www.reuters.com/article/chemicals-environment-idUSL6E8K4FPL20120905

72

https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2016/oct/25/antibiotic-waste-pollution-india-china-rivers-big-pharma-superbugs-resistance?CMP=ema-1706&CMP=

73

https://www.cafonline.org/about-us/publications/2016-publications/a-stronger-britain-how-can-charities-build-post-brexit-britain

74

The Sunday Times, 23 April 2017

75

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/feb/20/no-deal-brexit-would-mean-6bn-in-extra-costs-for-uk-exporters?CMP=share_btn_tw

75a

 Over two thirds of Britain’s exports to its 7 major trading partners went to the EU in
2016 ($203Bn out of $315Bn). It’s hard to see how anything other than a tariff-free
relationship (such as the status quo) can allow that level to remain so high.